Grade 10 Selected Top Priority Standards
Grade 10 English - Selected Top Priority Standards
- Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately.
- Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced.
- Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct in-depth analyses of recurrent patterns and themes. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
- Students write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the audience and purpose.
- Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies.
- Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories; Write responses to literature; Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports; Write persuasive compositions; Write business letters; & Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting).
- Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions.
- Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine the traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies and must be able to deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems and solutions and causes and effects).
- Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately.
Grade 10 Math - Selected Top Priority Standards
This discipline complements and expands the mathematical content and concepts of algebra I and geometry. Students who master algebra II will gain experience with algebraic solutions of problems in various content areas, including the solution of systems of quadratic equations, logarithmic and exponential functions, the binomial theorem, and the complex number system.
- Students solve systems of linear equations and inequalities (in two or three variables) by substitution, with graphs, or with matrices
- Students are adept at operations on polynomials, including long division.
- Students factor polynomials representing the difference of squares, perfect square trinomials, and the sum and difference of two cubes.
- Students add, subtract, multiply, divide, reduce, and evaluate rational expressions with monomial and polynomial denominators and simplify complicated rational expressions, including those with negative exponents in the denominator.
- Students solve and graph quadratic equations by factoring, completing the square, or using the quadratic formula. Students apply these techniques in solving word problems. They also solve quadratic equations in the complex number system.
- Students demonstrate and explain the effect that changing a coefficient has on the graph of quadratic functions; that is, students can determine how the graph of a parabola changes as a, b, and c vary in the equation y = a(x-b) 2+ c.
- Students prove simple laws of logarithms.
- Students understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.
- Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of real numbers, exponents, and logarithms have been applied correctly at each step.
- Students know the laws of fractional exponents, understand exponential functions, and use these functions in problems involving exponential growth and decay.
- Students understand and use the properties of logarithms to simplify logarithmic numeric expressions and to identify their approximate values.
- Students demonstrate and explain how the geometry of the graph of a conic section (e.g., asymptotes, foci, eccentricity) depends on the coefficients of the quadratic equation representing it.
Given a quadratic equation of the form ax2 + by2 + cx + dy + e = 0, students can use the method for completing the square to put the equation into standard form and can recognize whether the graph of the equation is a circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola. Students can then graph the equation.
- Students use fundamental counting principles to compute combinations and permutations.
- Students use combinations and permutations to compute probabilities.
- Students know the binomial theorem and use it to expand binomial expressions that are raised to positive integer powers.
- Students derive the summation formulas for arithmetic series and for both finite and infinite geometric series.
- Students solve problems involving functional concepts, such as composition, defining the inverse function and performing arithmetic operations on functions.
- Students use properties from number systems to justify steps in combining and simplifying functions.
Grade 10 Science - Selected Top Priority Standards
The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism's cells.
- Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.
- Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population.
- A multi cellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.
- Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.
The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects.
- The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time.
- Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.
- As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment.
Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.
As a basis for under-standing the human immune response:
- Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection.
- Students know the role of antibodies in the body's response to infection.
- Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.
- Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.
- Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms
Grade 10 Social - Selected Top Priority Standards
World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World
Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.
Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.
- Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.
- Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison).
- Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.
- Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement.
- Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy.
- Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.
- Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in Europe.
Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.
- Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonial-ism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology).
- Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
- Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.
- Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.
- Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.
- Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of "total war."
- Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, climate).
- Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war.
- Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial peoples contributed to the war effort.
- Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government's actions against Armenian citizens.
Students analyze the effects of the First World War.
- Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, the terms and influence of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the United States's rejection of the League of Nations on world politics.
- Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties on population movement, the international economy, and shifts in the geographic and political borders of Europe and the Middle East.
- Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians.
- Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the "lost generation" of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).
Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.
- Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin's use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag).
- Trace Stalin's rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).
- Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.
Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War II.
- Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
- Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of World War II.
- Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors.
- Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
- Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.
- Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan.
Students analyze the international developments in the post-World World War II world.
- Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan.
- Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.
Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.
- Understand the challenges in the regions, including their geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which they are involved.
- Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.
- Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.
Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy and the information, technological, and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).