Grade 9 Selected Top Priority Standards
Grade 9
- English
- Mathematics
- Science
- Social Studies
Grade 9 English - Selected Top Priority Standards
- Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately.
- Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced.
- Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct in-depth analyses of recurrent patterns and themes. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
- Students write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the audience and purpose.
- Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies.
- Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories; Write responses to literature; Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports; Write persuasive compositions; Write business letters; & Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting).
- Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions.
- Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine the traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies and must be able to deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems and solutions and causes and effects).
- Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately.
Grade 9 Math - Selected Top Priority Standards
- Students will develop their ability to construct formal, logical arguments and proofs in geometric settings and problems.
- Students demonstrate understanding by identifying and giving examples of undefined terms, axioms, theorems, and inductive and deductive reasoning.
- Students prove that triangles are congruent or similar, and they are able to use the concept of corresponding parts of congruent triangles.
- Students prove and use theorems involving the properties of parallel lines cut by a transversal, the properties of quadrilaterals, and the properties of circles.
- Students compute the volumes and surface areas of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres; and students commit to memory the formulas for prisms, pyramids, and cylinders.
- Students compute areas of polygons, including rectangles, scalene triangles, equilateral triangles, rhombi, parallelograms, and trapezoids.
- Students prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles.
- Students use the Pythagorean theorem to determine distance and find missing lengths of sides of right triangles.
- Students prove theorems by using coordinate geometry, including the midpoint of a line segment, the distance formula, and various forms of equations of lines and circles.
- Students know the definitions of the basic trigonometric functions defined by the angles of a right triangle. They also know and are able to use elementary relationships between them. For example, tan(x) = sin(x)/cos(x), (sin(x))2 + (cos(x)) 2 = 1.
- Students use trigonometric functions to solve for an unknown length of a side of a right triangle, given an angle and a length of a side.
- Students know and are able to use angle and side relationships in problems with special right triangles, such as 30°, 60°, and 90° triangles and 45°, 45°, and 90° triangles.
- Students prove and solve problems regarding relationships among chords, secants, tangents, inscribed angles, and inscribed and circumscribed polygons of circles.
- Students know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including rotations, translations, and reflections.
- Students will develop their ability to construct formal, logical arguments and proofs in geometric settings and problems.
Grade 9 Science - Selected Top Priority Standards
Physical Science
Physical Science helps to prepare students to enroll in Chemistry and Physics. Motion, forces, matter and structures are a few of the topics integrated into the curricula. Students will be introduced to basic ideas that build into a greater understanding of Chemistry and Physics in later years. Students will also examine the formation and evolution of the universe, the solar system, the earth, and the oceans. Investigations will highlight the methodologies and technologies of earth science and the development use, and depletion of the earth's resources.
- Laboratory is an essential part of this course and students learn the importance of observation and data organization as they produce formal laboratory reports for each activity.
- Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
- The students will gain basic understanding of the following concepts: velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position; Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects; Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many practical applications; etc.
Earth Science
Students understand that astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system's structure, scale, and change over time.
- Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time.
Students know accelerators boost subatomic particles to energy levels that simulate conditions in the stars and in the early history of the universe before stars formed.
Students know the evidence indicating that the color, brightness, and evolution of a star are determined by a balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion.
Students know how the red-shift from distant galaxies and the cosmic background radiation provide evidence for the "big bang" model that suggests that the universe has been expanding for 10 to 20 billion years.
- Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth's surface.
Students know the explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and the explanation for those that are due to subduction.
Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth's internal energy and the energy used by society.
Students know how differential heating of Earth results in circulation patterns in the atmosphere and oceans that globally distribute the heat.
Students know the interaction of wind patterns, ocean currents, and mountain ranges results in the global pattern of latitudinal bands of rain forests and deserts.Students know features of the ENSO (El Niño southern oscillation) cycle in terms of sea-surface and air temperature variations across the Pacific and some climatic results of this cycle.
Students know how computer models are used to predict the effects of the increase in greenhouse gases on climate for the planet as a whole and for specific regions.
Students know how the composition of Earth's atmosphere has evolved over geologic time and know the effect of outgassing, the variations of carbon dioxide concentration, and the origin of atmospheric oxygen.Investigation & Experimentation
Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.- Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error.
- Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or uncontrolled conditions.
- Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.
- Solve scientific problems by using quadratic equations and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
- Distinguish between hypothesis and theory as scientific terms.
- Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.
- Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps.
- Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).
- Recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests.
- Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.
- Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science.
Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings. Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California.
Know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e.g., the Piltdown Man fossil or unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes wrong (e.g., the Ptolemaic model of the movement of the Sun, Moon, and planets).- Laboratory is an essential part of this course and students learn the importance of observation and data organization as they produce formal laboratory reports for each activity.
Grade 9 Social - Selected Top Priority Standards
- Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
- Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
- Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
- Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
- Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.
- Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
- Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors' use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
- Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.
- Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
- Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
- Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
- Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.