Grade 6  Selected Top Priority Standards


  • English

    Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.

    • Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

    Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. 

    • Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, online information) and use the features to obtain information.
    • Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics.
    • Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports.
    • Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications (e.g., for a public library card, bank savings account, sports club, league membership).
    • Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence for an author's conclusions.

    Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works.

    • Analyze the effect of the qualities of the character (e.g., courage or cowardice, ambition or laziness) on the plot and the resolution of the conflict.
    • Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first-and third-person narration (e.g., autobiography compared with biography).
    • Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images.
    • Explain the effects of common literary devices (e.g., symbolism, imagery, metaphor) in a variety of fictional and nonfictional texts.

    Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays.

    • Choose the form of writing (e.g., personal letter, letter to the editor, review, poem, report, narrative) that best suits the intended purpose.
    • Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions:
    • Use a variety of effective and coherent organizational patterns, including comparison and contrast; organization by categories; and arrangement by spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order.
    • Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information.
    • Compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).
    • Revise writing to improve the organization and consistency of ideas within and between paragraphs.

    Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies.

    • Write narratives such as to establish and develop a plot and setting and present a point of view that is appropriate to the stories.
    • Write expository compositions (e.g., description, explanation, comparison and contrast, problem and solution):
    • Write research reports.
    • Write responses to literature such as in developing an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
    • Write persuasive compositions.

    Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.

    • Use simple, compound, and compound-complex sentences; use effective coordination and subordination of ideas to express complete thoughts.
    • Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns and present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect verb tenses; ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects.
    • Use colons after the salutation in business letters, semicolons to connect independent clauses, and commas when linking two clauses with a conjunction in compound sentences. 

    Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. They evaluate the content of oral communication.

    • Relate the speaker's verbal communication (e.g., word choice, pitch, feeling, tone) to the nonverbal message (e.g., posture, gesture).
    • Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view, matching the purpose, message, occasion, and vocal modulation to the audience.
    • Support opinions with detailed evidence and with visual or media displays that use appropriate technology.
    • Use effective rate, volume, pitch, and tone and align nonverbal elements to sustain audience interest and attention.

    Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking.

    • Deliver narrative presentations.
    • Deliver informative presentations.
    • Deliver oral responses to literature.
    • Deliver persuasive presentations.
    • Deliver presentations on problems and solutions.


  • Math

    By the end of grade six, students have mastered the four arithmetic operations with whole numbers, positive fractions, positive decimals, and positive and negative integers; they accurately compute and solve problems. They apply their knowledge to statistics and probability.

    • Students understand the concepts of mean, median, and mode of data sets and how to calculate the range. They analyze data and sampling processes for possible bias and misleading conclusions; they use addition and multiplication of fractions routinely to calculate the probabilities for compound events. Students conceptually understand and work with ratios and proportions; they compute percentages (e.g., tax, tips, interest).

    • Students know about pi and the formulas for the circumference and area of a circle. They use letters for numbers in formulas involving geometric shapes and in ratios to represent an unknown part of an expression. They solve one-step linear equations.

    • Students compare and order positive and negative fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers. Students solve problems involving fractions, ratios, proportions, and percentages.

    • Students calculate and solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

    • Students write verbal expressions and sentences as algebraic expressions and equations; they evaluate algebraic expressions, solve simple linear equations, and graph and interpret their results

    • Students analyze and use tables, graphs, and rules to solve problems involving rates and proportions:

    • Students investigate geometric patterns and describe them algebraically.

    • Students deepen their understanding of the measurement of plane and solid shapes and use this understanding to solve problems.

    • Students compute and analyze statistical measurements for data sets.

    • Students determine theoretical and experimental probabilities and use these to make predictions about events:

    • Students make decisions about how to approach problems.

    • Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions.

    • Students move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations.
  • Science

    Focus on Earth Science:

    Plate Tectonics and Earth's Structure.

    Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth's surface and major geologic events. As a basis for understanding this concept:

    1. Students know evidence of plate tectonics is derived from the fit of the continents; the location of earthquakes, volcanoes, and midocean ridges; and the distribution of fossils, rock types, and ancient climatic zones.
    2. Students know Earth is composed of several layers: a cold, brittle lithosphere; a hot, convecting mantle; and a dense, metallic core.
    3. Students know lithospheric plates the size of continents and oceans move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle.
    4. Students know that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults and that volcanoes and fissures are locations where magma reaches the surface.
    5. Students know major geologic events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from plate motions.
    6. Students know how to explain major features of California geology (including mountains, faults, volcanoes) in terms of plate tectonics.
    7. Students know how to determine the epicenter of an earthquake and know that the effects of an earthquake on any region vary, depending on the size of the earthquake, the distance of the region from the epicenter, the local geology, and the type of construction in the region.

    Shaping Earth's Surface

    Topography is reshaped by the weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment. As a basis for understanding this concept:

    1. Students know water running downhill is the dominant process in shaping the landscape, including California's landscape.
    2. Students know rivers and streams are dynamic systems that erode, transport sediment, change course, and flood their banks in natural and recurring patterns.
    3. Students know beaches are dynamic systems in which the sand is supplied by rivers and moved along the coast by the action of waves.
    4. Students know earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods change human and wildlife habitats.

    Physical Sciences:

    Heat (Thermal Energy.

    Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature. As a basis for understanding this concept:

    1. Students know energy can be carried from one place to another by heat flow or by waves, including water, light and sound waves, or by moving objects.
    2. Students know that when fuel is consumed, most of the energy released becomes heat energy.
    3. Students know heat flows in solids by conduction (which involves no flow of matter) and in fluids by conduction and by convection (which involves flow of matter).
    4. Students know heat energy is also transferred between objects by radiation (radiation can travel through space).

    Energy in the Earth System.

    Many phenomena on Earth's surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents. As a basis for understanding this concept:

    1. Students know the sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth's surface; it powers winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
    2. Students know solar energy reaches Earth through radiation, mostly in the form of visible light.
    3. Students know heat from Earth's interior reaches the surface primarily through convection.
    4. Students know convection currents distribute heat in the atmosphere and oceans.
    5. Students know differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity result in changes of weather.

    Ecology (Life Sciences):

    Organisms in ecosystems exchange energy and nutrients among themselves and with the environment. As a basis for understanding this concept:

    1. Students know energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis and then from organism to organism through food webs.
    2. Students know matter is transferred over time from one organism to others in the food web and between organisms and the physical environment.
    3. Students know populations of organisms can be categorized by the functions they serve in an ecosystem.
    4. Students know different kinds of organisms may play similar ecological roles in similar biomes.
    5. Students know the number and types of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, a range of temperatures, and soil composition.


    Sources of energy and materials differ in amounts, distribution, usefulness, and the time required for their formation. As a basis for understanding this concept:

    1. Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process.
    2. Students know different natural energy and material resources, including air, soil, rocks, minerals, petroleum, fresh water, wildlife, and forests, and know how to classify them as renewable or nonrenewable.
    3. Students know the natural origin of the materials used to make common objects.

    Investigation and Experimentation.

    Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

    1. Develop a hypothesis.
    2. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
    3. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the relationships between variables.
    4. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.
    5. Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.
    6. Read a topographic map and a geologic map for evidence provided on the maps and construct and interpret a simple scale map.
    7. Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena (e.g., the relative ages of rocks and intrusions).
    8. Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena (e.g., a tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hill slope).
  • Social Studies

    World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations

    Students in grade six expand their understanding of history by studying the people and events that ushered in the dawn of the major Western and non-Western ancient civilizations. Geography is of special significance in the development of the human story. Continued emphasis is placed on the everyday lives, problems, and accomplishments of people, their role in developing social, economic, and political structures, as well as in establishing and spreading ideas that helped transform the world forever.

    Students develop higher levels of critical thinking by considering why civilizations developed where and when they did, why they became dominant, and why they declined. Students analyze the interactions among the various cultures, emphasizing their enduring contributions and the link, despite time, between the contemporary and ancient worlds.

    Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.

    Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.

    Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power.

    • Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
    • Know the significance of Hammurabi's Code.
    • Trace the evolution of language and its written forms.

    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Ancient Hebrews.

    • Describe the origins and significance of Judaism as the first monotheistic religion based on the concept of one God who sets down moral laws for humanity.
    • Identify the sources of the ethical teachings and central beliefs of Judaism (the Hebrew Bible, the Commentaries): belief in God, observance of law, practice of the concepts of righteousness and justice, and importance of study; and describe how the ideas of the Hebrew traditions are reflected in the moral and ethical traditions of Western civilization.
    • Explain the significance of Abraham, Moses, Naomi, Ruth, David, and Yohanan ben Zaccai in the development of the Jewish religion.
    • Discuss the locations of the settlements and movements of Hebrew peoples, including the Exodus and their movement to and from Egypt, and outline the significance of the Exodus to the Jewish and other people.
    • Discuss how Judaism survived and developed despite the continuing dispersion of much of the Jewish population from Jerusalem and the rest of Israel after the destruction of the second Temple in A.D. 70.

    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.

    • Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea, including patterns of trade and commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean region.
    • Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship (e.g., from Pericles' Funeral Oration).
    • Outline the founding, expansion, and political organization of the Persian Empire.
    • Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta, with emphasis on their roles in the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.
    • Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture eastward and into Egypt.
    • Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences (e.g., Hypatia, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Thucydides).

    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India.

    • Discuss the significance of the Aryan invasions.
    • Explain the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India and how they evolved into early Hinduism.
    • Outline the social structure of the caste system.
    • Know the life and moral teachings of Buddha and how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia.
    • Describe the growth of the Maurya empire and the political and moral achievements of the emperor Asoka.
    • Discuss important aesthetic and intellectual traditions (e.g., Sanskrit literature, including the Bhagavad Gita; medicine; metallurgy; and mathematics, including Hindu-Arabic numerals and the zero).

    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of China.

    • Locate and describe the origins of Chinese civilization in the Huang-He Valley during the Shang Dynasty.
    • Explain the geographic features of China that made governance and the spread of ideas and goods difficult and served to isolate the country from the rest of the world.
    • Know about the life of Confucius and the fundamental teachings of Confucianism and Taoism.
    • Identify the political and cultural problems prevalent in the time of Confucius and how he sought to solve them.
    • List the policies and achievements of the emperor Shi Huangdi in unifying northern China under the Qin Dynasty.
    • Detail the political contributions of the Han Dynasty to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and the expansion of the empire.
    • Cite the significance of the trans-Eurasian "silk roads" in the period of the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire and their locations.
    • Describe the diffusion of Buddhism northward to China during the Han Dynasty.

    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.

    • Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, Julius Caesar, and Cicero.
    • Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g., written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty).
    • Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes.
    • Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition from republic to empire.
    • Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans' restrictions on their right to live in Jerusalem.
    • Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of Christian beliefs (e.g., belief in the Trinity, resurrection, salvation).
    • Describe the circumstances that led to the spread of Christianity in Europe and other Roman territories.
    • Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, literature, language, and law.


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Saraburi 18110, Thailand

California Prep International School
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