Grade 7 Selected Top Priority Standards
Grade 7 Selected Top Priority Standards
1. Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
- Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry.
2. Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.
- Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose between various categories of informational materials (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, instructional manuals, signs).
- Identify and trace the development of an author's argument, point of view, or perspective in text.
- Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of the author's evidence to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping.
3. Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. Articulate the expressed purposes and characteristics of different forms of prose (e.g., short story, novel, novella, essay).
- Identify events that advance the plot and determine how each event explains past or present action(s) or foreshadows future action(s).
4. Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
- Create an organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas.
- Use strategies of note taking, outlining, and summarizing to impose structure on composition drafts.
- Identify topics; ask and evaluate questions; and develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation, and research.
- Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations.
- Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports.
- Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the ideas and the precision of the vocabulary.
5. Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. The writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies.
- Write responses to literature by developing, organizing, and justifying interpretations that shows careful reading and textual evidence.
- Write research reports.
- Write persuasive compositions.
6. Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate to the grade level.
- Place modifiers properly and use the active voice.
- Identify and use infinitives and participles and make clear references between pronouns and antecedents.
- Identify all parts of speech and types and structure of sentences.
- Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotation marks, commas at end of dependent clauses) and appropriate English usage (e.g., pronoun reference).
- Deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. Students evaluate the content of oral communication.
- Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker's claims and conclusions.
- Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background and interests of the audience.
- Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively in relation to the audience.
- Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact, for effective presentations.
- Provide constructive feedback to speakers concerning the coherence and logic of a speech's content and delivery and its overall impact upon the listener.
7. Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking.
- Deliver narrative presentations.
- Deliver oral summaries of articles and books.
- Deliver research presentations.
- Deliver persuasive presentations.
By the end of grade seven, students are adept at manipulating numbers and equations and understand the general principles at work. Students understand and use factoring of numerators and denominators and properties of exponents. They know the Pythagorean theorem and solve problems in which they compute the length of an unknown side.
Students know how to compute the surface area and volume of basic three-dimensional objects and understand how area and volume change with a change in scale. Students make conversions between different units of measurement. They know and use different representations of fractional numbers (fractions, decimals, and percents) and are proficient at changing from one to another.
They increase their facility with ratio and proportion, compute percents of increase and decrease, and compute simple and compound interest. They graph linear functions and understand the idea of slope and its relation to ratio.
- Students know the properties of, and compute with, rational numbers expressed in a variety of forms.
- Students use exponents, powers, and roots and use exponents in working with fractions.
- Students express quantitative relationships by using algebraic terminology, expressions, equations,
inequalities, and graphs.
- Students interpret and evaluate expressions involving integer powers and simple roots:
- Students graph and interpret linear and some nonlinear functions.
- Students solve simple linear equations and inequalities over the rational numbers:
- Students choose appropriate units of measure and use ratios to convert within and between measurement systems to solve problems.
- Students compute the perimeter, area, and volume of common geometric objects and use the results to find measures of less common objects. (They know how perimeter, area, and volume are affected by changes of scale.)
- Students know the Pythagorean theorem and deepen their understanding of plane and solid geometric shapes by constructing figures that meet given conditions and by identifying attributes of figures.
- Students collect, organize, and represent data sets that have one or more variables and identify relationships among variables within a data set by hand and through the use of an electronic spreadsheet software program:
- Students make decisions about how to approach problems:
- Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutions:
- Students determine a solution is complete and move beyond a particular problem by generalizing to other situations.
- Students know the properties of, and compute with, rational numbers expressed in a variety of forms.
Focus on Life Science
All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible only through a microscope. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know cells function similarly in all living organisms.
- Students know the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells, including chloroplasts and cell walls.
- Students know the nucleus is the repository for genetic information in plant and animal cells.
- Students know that mitochondria liberate energy for the work that cells do and that chloroplasts capture sunlight energy for photosynthesis.
- Students know cells divide to increase their numbers through a process of mitosis, which results in two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes.
- Students know that as multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate.
A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms.
- Students know sexual reproduction produces offspring that inherit half their genes from each parent.
- Students know an inherited trait can be determined by one or more genes.
- Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles) of the gene may or may not be identical, and one may be dominant in determining the phenotype while the other is recessive.
- Students know DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms and is located in the chromosomes of each cell.
Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.
Earth and Life History (Earth Sciences)
Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know Earth processes today are similar to those that occurred in the past and slow geologic processes have large cumulative effects over long periods of time.
- Students know the history of life on Earth has been disrupted by major catastrophic events, such as major volcanic eruptions or the impacts of asteroids.
- Students know that the rock cycle includes the formation of new sediment and rocks and that rocks are often found in layers, with the oldest generally on the bottom.
- Students know fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed.
- Students know how movements of Earth's continental and oceanic plates through time, with associated changes in climate and geographic connections, have affected the past and present distribution of organisms.
- Students know how to explain significant developments and extinctions of plant and animal life on the geologic time scale.
Structure and Function in Living Systems
The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism.
- Students know organ systems function because of the contributions of individual organs, tissues, and cells. The failure of any part can affect the entire system.
- Students know how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement.
- Students know how the reproductive organs of the human female and male generate eggs and sperm and how sexual activity may lead to fertilization and pregnancy.
- Students know the function of the umbilicus and placenta during pregnancy.
- Students know the structures and processes by which flowering plants generate pollen, ovules, seeds, and fruit.
- Students know how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their functions.
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Sciences)
Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for understanding this concept:
- Students know visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.
- Students know that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.
- Students know light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.
- Students know how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.
- Students know that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths.
- Students know light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.
- Students know the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.
- Students know how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices (hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).
- Students know how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal system.
- Students know that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent back flow of blood in the circulatory system.
Investigation and Experimentation
Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
- Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
- Use a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect information and evidence as part of a research project.
- Communicate the logical connection among hypotheses, science concepts, tests conducted, data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence.
- Construct scale models, maps, and appropriately labeled diagrams to communicate scientific knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth's plates and cell structure).
- Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.
World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times
Students in grade seven study the social, cultural, and technological changes that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia in the years A. D. 500Ð 1789. After reviewing the ancient world and the ways in which archaeologists and historians uncover the past, students study the history and geography of great civilizations that were developing concurrently throughout the world during medieval and early modern times. They examine the growing economic interaction among civilizations as well as the exchange of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and commodities. They learn about the resulting growth of Enlightenment philosophy and the new examination of the concepts of reason and authority, the natural rights of human beings and the divine right of kings, experimentalism in science, and the dogma of belief. Finally, students assess the political forces let loose by the Enlightenment, particularly the rise of democratic ideas, and they learn about the continuing influence of these ideas in the world today.
Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.
- Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news).
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages.
- Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.
- Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.
- Explain the significance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims' daily life.
- Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.
- Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops), and the role of merchants in Arab society.
- Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages.
- Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan.
- Describe agricultural, technological, and commercial developments during the Tang and Sung periods.
- Analyze the influences of Confucianism and changes in Confucian thought during the Sung and Mongol periods.
- Understand the importance of both overland trade and maritime expeditions between China and other civilizations in the Mongol Ascendancy and Ming Dynasty.
- Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper, wood-block printing, the compass, and gunpowder.
- Describe the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa.
- Analyze the importance of family, labor specialization, and regional commerce in the development of states and cities in West Africa.
- Describe the role of the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.
- Describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the intellectual, linguistic, religious, and philosophical influence of those countries on Japan.
- Discuss the reign of Prince Shotoku of Japan and the characteristics of Japanese society and family life during his reign.
- Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century.
- Trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism.
- Study the ninth and tenth centuries' golden age of literature, art, and drama and its lasting effects on culture today, including Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji.
- Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of the samurai in that society.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.
- Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England).
- Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.
- Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe and describe its impact on global population.
- Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.
Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations.
Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance.
Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation.
- Understand the institution and impact of missionaries on Christianity and the diffusion of Christianity from Europe to other parts of the world in the medieval and early modern periods; locate missions on a world map.
- Describe the Golden Age of cooperation between Jews and Muslims in medieval Spain that promoted creativity in art, literature, and science, including how that cooperation was terminated by the religious persecution of individuals and groups (e.g., the Spanish Inquisition and the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain in 1492).
Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions.
- Discuss the roots of the Scientific Revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from global exploration).
- Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer).
- Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.
Students analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).
- Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview.
- Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.
- Describe how democratic thought and institutions were influenced by Enlightenment thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, American founders).
- Discuss how the principles in the Magna Carta were embodied in such documents as the English Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of Independence.