Students know about letters, words, and sounds. They apply this knowledge to read simple sentences.
Concepts About Print
Decoding and Word Recognition
Vocabulary and Concept Development
Students identify the basic facts and ideas in what they have read, heard, or viewed. They use comprehension strategies (e.g., generating and responding to questions, comparing new information to what is already known). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (California Department of Education, 2002) illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
Structural Features of Informational Materials
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
Students listen and respond to stories based on well-known characters, themes, plots, and settings. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
1.0 Writing Strategies
Students write words and brief sentences that are legible.
Organization and Focus
The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills.
1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions.
1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies
Students listen and respond to oral communication. They speak in clear and coherent sentences.
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests, demonstrating command of the organization and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
Using the listening and speaking strategies of kindergarten outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:
By the end of kindergarten, students understand small numbers, quantities, and simple shapes in their everyday environment. They count, compare, describe and sort objects, and develop a sense of properties and patterns.
1.0 Students understand the relationship between numbers and quantities (i.e., that a set of objects has the same number of objects in different situations regardless of its position or arrangement):
1.1 Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set is equal to, more than, or less than the other.
1.2 Count, recognize, represent, name, and order a number of objects (up to 30).
1.3 Know that the larger numbers describe sets with more objects in them than the smaller numbers have.
2.0 Students understand and describe simple additions and subtractions:
2.1 Use concrete objects to determine the answers to addition and subtraction problems (for two numbers that are each less than 10).
3.0 Students use estimation strategies in computation and problem solving that involve numbers that use the ones and tens places:
3.1 Recognize when an estimate is reasonable.
1.0 Students sort and classify objects:
1.1 Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red).
1.0 Students understand the concept of time and units to measure it; they understand that objects have properties, such as length, weight, and capacity, and that comparisons may be made by referring to those properties:
1.1 Compare the length, weight, and capacity of objects by making direct comparisons with reference objects (e.g., note which object is shorter, longer, taller, lighter, heavier, or holds more).
1.2 Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of time (e.g., morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, week, year) and tools that measure time (e.g., clock, calendar).
1.3 Name the days of the week.
1.4 Identify the time (to the nearest hour) of everyday events (e.g., lunch time is 12 o'clock; bedtime is 8 o'clock at night).
2.0 Students identify common objects in their environment and describe the geometric features:
2.1 Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, one).
2.2 Compare familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes (e.g., position, shape, size, roundness, number of corners).
1.0 Students collect information about objects and events in their environment:
1.1 Pose information questions; collect data; and record the results using objects, pictures, and picture graphs.
1.2 Identify, describe, and extend simple patterns (such as circles or triangles) by referring to their shapes, sizes, or colors.
1.0 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem:
1.1 Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used.
1.2 Use tools and strategies, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.
2.0 Students solve problems in reasonable ways and justify their reasoning:
2.1 Explain the reasoning used with concrete objects and/ or pictorial representations.
2.2 Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.
Students in kindergarten are introduced to basic spatial, temporal, and causal relationships, emphasizing the geographic and historical connections between the world today and the world long ago. The stories of ordinary and extraordinary people help describe the range and continuity of human experience and introduce the concepts of courage, self-control, justice, heroism, leadership, deliberation, and individual responsibility. Historical empathy for how people lived and worked long ago reinforces the concept of civic behavior: how we interact respectfully with each other, following rules, and respecting the rights of others.
K.1 Students understand that being a good citizen involves acting in certain ways.
K.2 Students recognize national and state symbols and icons such as the national and state flags, the bald eagle, and the Statue of Liberty.
K.3 Students match simple descriptions of work that people do and the names of related jobs at the school, in the local community, and from historical accounts.
K.4 Students compare and contrast the locations of people, places, and environments and describe their characteristics.
K.5 Students put events in temporal order using a calendar, placing days, weeks, and months in proper order.
K.6 Students understand that history relates to events, people, and places of other times.
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
1.1 Travel within a large group, without bumping into others or falling, while using locomotor skills.
1.2 Travel forward and sideways while changing direction quickly in response to a signal.
1.3 Demonstrate contrasts between slow and fast speeds while using locomotor skills.
1.4 Create shapes at high, medium, and low levels by using hands, arms, torso, feet, and legs in a variety of combinations.
1.5 Create shapes by using nonlocomotor movements.
1.6 Balance on one, two, three, four, and five body parts.
1.7 Balance while walking forward and sideways on a narrow, elevated surface.
1.8 Demonstrate the relationship of under, over, behind, next to, through, right, left, up, down, forward, backward, and in front of by using the body and an object.
1.9 Perform a continuous log roll.
1.10 Travel in straight, curved, and zigzag pathways.
1.11 Jump over a stationary rope several times in succession, using forward-and-back and side-to-side movement patterns.
1.12 Strike a stationary ball or balloon with the hands, arms, and feet.
1.13 Toss a ball to oneself, using the underhand throw pattern, and catch it before it bounces twice.
1.14 Kick a stationary object, using a simple kicking pattern.
1.15 Bounce a ball continuously, using two hands.
1.16 Perform locomotor and nonlocomotor movements to a steady beat.
1.17 Clap in time to a simple, rhythmic beat.
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.
2.1 Explain the difference between under and over, behind and in front of, next to and through, up and down, forward and backward, and sideways.
2.2 Identify and independently use personal space, general space, and boundaries and discuss why they are important.
2.3 Identify and describe parts of the body: the head, shoulders, neck, back, chest, waist, hips, arms, elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, legs, knees, ankles, feet, and toes.
2.4 Explain base of support.
2.5 Identify the locomotor skills of walk, jog, run, hop, jump, slide, and gallop.
2.6 Explain the role of the eyes when striking objects with the hands, arms, and feet.
2.7 Identify the point of contact for kicking a ball in a straight line.
2.8 Describe the position of the fingers in the follow-through phase of bouncing a ball continuously.
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.
3.1 Participate in physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
3.3 Hang from overhead bars for increasing periods of time.
3.4 Climb a ladder, jungle gym, or apparatus.
3.5 Stretch shoulders, legs, arms, and back without bouncing.
3.7 Identify indicators of increased capacity to participate in vigorous physical activity.
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.
4.1 Identify physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
4.2 Describe the role of water as an essential nutrient for the body.
4.3 Explain that nutritious food provides energy for physical activity.
4.4 Identify the location of the heart and explain that it is a muscle.
4.5 Explain that physical activity increases the heart rate.
4.6 Identify the location of the lungs and explain the role of the lungs in the collection of oxygen.
4.7 Explain that strong muscles help the body to climb, hang, push, and pull.
4.8 Describe the role of muscles in moving the bones.
4.9 Identify the body part involved when stretching.
4.10 Explain that the body is composed of bones, organs, fat, and other tissues.
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
5.1 Identify the feelings that result from participation in physical activity.
5.2 Participate willingly in physical activities.
5.3 Demonstrate the characteristics of sharing in a physical activity.
5.4 Describe how positive social interaction can make physical activity with others more fun.
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to Music
Students read, notate, listen to, analyze, and describe music and other aural information, using the terminology of music.
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Use icons or invented symbols to represent beat.
Listen to, Analyze, and Describe Music
1.2 Identify and describe basic elements in music (e.g., high/low, fast/slow, loud/soft, beat).
2.0 CREATIVE EXPRESSION
Creating, Performing, and Participating in Music
Students apply vocal and instrumental musical skills in performing a varied repertoire of music. They compose and arrange music and improvise melodies, variations, and accompaniments, using digital/electronic technology when appropriate.
Apply Vocal and Instrumental Skills
2.1 Use the singing voice to echo short melodic patterns.
2.2 Sing age-appropriate songs from memory.
2.3 Play instruments and move or verbalize to demonstrate awareness of beat, tempo, dynamics, and melodic direction.
Compose, Arrange, and Improvise
2.4 Create accompaniments, using the voice or a variety of classroom instruments.
Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of Music
Students analyze the role of music in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting cultural diversity as it relates to music, musicians, and composers.
Role of Music
3.1 Identify the various uses of music in daily experiences.
Diversity of Music
3.2 Sing and play simple singing games from various cultures.
3.3 Use a personal vocabulary to describe voices and instruments from diverse cultures.
3.4 Use developmentally appropriate movements in responding to music from various genres and styles (rhythm, melody).
Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works of Music
Students critically assess and derive meaning from works of music and the performance of musicians according to the elements of music, aesthetic qualities, and human responses.
4.1 Create movements that correspond to specific music.
4.2 Identify, talk about, sing, or play music written for specific purposes (e.g., work song, lullaby).
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in Music to Learning in Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
Students apply what they learn in music across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to music.
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use music, together with dance, theatre, and the visual arts, for storytelling.
Careers and Career-Related Skills
5.2 Identify and talk about the reasons artists have for creating dances, music, theatre pieces, and works of visual art.
1.0 ARTISTIC PERCEPTION
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to Dance
Students perceive and respond, using the elements of dance. They demonstrate movement skills, process sensory information, and describe movement, using the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills and Technical Expertise
1.1 Build the range and capacity to move in a variety of ways.
1.2 Perform basic loco motor skills (e.g., walk, run, gallop, jump, hop, and balance).
Comprehension and Analysis of Dance Elements
1.3 Understand and respond to a wide range of opposites (e.g., high/low, forward/backward, wiggle/freeze).
Development of Dance Vocabulary
1.4 Perform simple movements in response to oral instructions (e.g., walk, turn, reach).
Creating, Performing, and Participating in Dance
Students apply choreographic principles, processes, and skills to create and communicate meaning through the improvisation, composition, and performance of dance.
Creation/Invention of Dance Movements
2.1 Create movements that reflect a variety of personal experiences (e.g., recall feeling happy, sad, angry, excited).
2.2 Respond to a variety of stimuli (e.g., sounds, words, songs, props, and images) with original movements.
2.3 Respond spontaneously to different types of music, rhythms, and sounds.
Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of Dance
Students analyze the function and development of dance in past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human diversity as it relates to dance and dancers.
Development of Dance
3.1 Name and perform folk/traditional dances from the United States and other countries.
Responding to, Analyzing, and Making Judgments About Works of Dance
Students critically assess and derive meaning from works of dance, performance of dancers, and original works according to the elements of dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis, and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Explain basic features that distinguish one kind of dance from another (e.g., speed, force/energy use, costume, setting, music).
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned in Dance to Learning in Other Art Forms and Subject Areas and to Careers
Students apply what they learn in dance to learning across subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to dance.
Connections and Applications Across Disciplines
5.1 Give examples of the relationship between everyday movement in school and dance movement.